Walter Raleigh (priest)

Walter Raleigh or Ralegh (1586–1646) was an English divine, Dean of Wells from 1641. He died after a violent attack, a prisoner in his own deanery.

Raleigh was the second son of Sir Walter Raleigh’s elder brother, Sir Carew Raleigh, of Downton, Wiltshire. His mother was Dorothy, widow of Sir John Thynne, of Longleat, Wiltshire, and daughter of Sir William Wroughton, of Broadheighton, Wiltshire. He was educated at Winchester School and at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he matriculated as commoner on 5 November 1602. He graduated B.A. in 1605 and M.A. in 1608.

Raleigh took holy orders, and in 1618 became chaplain to William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke. In 1620 he was presented by his patron to the rectory of Chedzoy, near Bridgwater, Somerset; in the following year he received the rectory of Wilton St Mary, Wiltshire. About 1630 he was chosen a chaplain-in-ordinary to Charles I, who admired his preaching. In 1632 he was made rector of Elingdon or Wroughton, and in 1635 of Street, Somerset. In 1634 he was minor prebendary of Combe in Wells Cathedral, and received besides the rectory of Street-cum-Walton. In 1636 he was created D.D. In 1637 he became dean and rector of St Buryan, Cornwall, and in 1641 he was chosen to succeed Dr George Warburton as dean of Wells.

Among Raleigh’s friends were Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland, Henry Hammond, William Chillingworth, and Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. A royalist and a member of the Falkland circle, Raleigh suffered during the First English Civil War. While he was attending the king, his rectory-house at Chedzoy was plundered by the parliamentarians, his property stolen, his cattle driven away, and his wife and children expelled from their home. But in the western counties fortune was for some time favourable to the king, and Raleigh was enabled to return to Chedzoy. He continued to live there in safety until the defeat of George Goring, lord Goring, at Langport in 1645. Raleigh then fled to Bridgwater, and on the fall of the town (21 July 1645) surrendered to the parliamentarians. From Bridgwater he was sent a prisoner to Chedzoy, but on account of his weakness he was allowed to live in free custody in his own house.

The departure of Fairfax and Cromwell was for Raleigh the beginning of new troubles. One Henry Jeanes, being anxious, it is said, to secure the rectory for himself, carried off the dean to Ilchester, and there had him lodged in the county gaol. From Ilchester the prisoner was removed to Banwell, and then to the deanery, Wells, where he was entrusted to the care of David Barrett, a shoemaker.

Raleigh was harshly dealt with, and mortally wounded in a scuffle. According to Simon Patrick, Raleigh was murdered while attempting to screen from Barrett’s curiosity a letter that he had written to his wife. He died on 10 October 1646, and was buried in the choir of Wells Cathedral, before the dean’s stall.

Raleigh’s eldest son George attempted to bring Barrett to justice. A priest-vicar of Wells named Standish was arrested for having permitted the burial of the dean in the cathedral, and kept in custody. The handling of these matters in the Sufferings of the Clergy by John Walker, half a century later, has been used to illustrated the methods and problems of Walker’s historiography.

Raleigh’s papers were preserved in the family, and thirteen of his sermons were given by his widow to Simon Patrick, who published them in 1679, with a biographical notice, and a Latin poem written in praise of Raleigh by a Cambridge admirer, who is probably Patrick himself. The volume is entitled Reliquiæ Raleighanæ, being Discourses and Sermons on several subjects, by the Reverend Dr. Walter Raleigh. The editor praises Raleigh’s quickness of wit, ready elocution, and mental powers, but says that he ‚was led to imitate too far a very eminent man,‘ whose name is not given.

In 1719 Laurence Howell published Certain Queries proposed by Roman Catholicks, and answered by Dr. Walter Raleigh, with an account of Raleigh copied from Patrick. Of a tract on the millennium which Raleigh is said to have written, no trace remains.

Between 1620 and 1623 Raleigh married Maria, daughter of Sir Ralph Gibbs. During the civil war she took refuge at Downton, where she was joined by her husband.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: „Ralegh, Walter (1586–1646)“. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 

Yoruba art

The Yoruba of West Africa (Benin, Nigeria and Togo, with migrant communities in parts of Ghana, and Sierra Leone) are responsible for one of the finest artistic traditions in Africa, a tradition that remains vital and influential today.

Much of the art of the Yoruba, including staffs, court dress, and beadwork for crowns, is associated with the royal courts. The courts also commissioned numerous architectural objects such as veranda posts, gates, and doors that are embellished with carvings. Other Yoruba art is related shrines and masking traditions. The Yoruba worship a large pantheon of deities, and shrines dedicated to these gods are adorned with carvings and house and array of altar figures and other ritual paraphernalia. Masking traditions vary regionally, and a wide range of mask types are employed in various festivals and celebrations.

Abundant natural resources enabled the Yoruba to develop one of the most complex cultures in sub-Saharan Africa. By the beginning of the second millennium CE, Ile-Ife, their most sacred city, had become a major urban center with highly sophisticated religious, social, and political institutions.

In the period around 1300 C.E. the artists at Ife developed a refined and naturalistic sculptural tradition in terracotta, stone and copper alloy – copper, brass, and bronze many of which appear to have been created under the patronage of King Obalufon II, the man who today is identified as the Yoruba patron deity of brass casting, weaving and regalia. The dynasty of kings at Ife, which regarded the Yoruba as the place of origin of human civilization, remains intact to this day.

There have been a series of Yoruba kingdoms over the past nine centuries. Ife was one of the earliest of these; Oyo was also early and the Owa kingdom in the southwest maintained close ties to Oyo. Ife also experienced the artistic and cultural influence of Benin dating back to the 14th Century or earlier. Owa artists supplied fine ivory work to the court at Benin and Owa royalty adapted and transformed many Benin institutions and the regalia of leadership.

Yoruba kingdoms prospered until the slave trade and warfare of the nineteenth century took their toll. One of the effects of this devastation was the dispersal of millions of Yoruba all over the world. This resulted in a strong Yoruba character in the artistic, religious and social lives of Africans in the New World.

The custom of art and artists among the Yoruba is deeply rooted in the Ifá literary corpus, indicating the orishas Ogun, Obatala, Oshun and Obalufon as central to creation mythology including artistry (i.e. the art of humanity).

In order to fully understand the centrality of art (onà) in Yoruba thought, one must be aware of their cosmology, which traces the origin of existence (ìwà) to a Supreme Divinity called Olódùmarè, the generator of ase, the enabling power that sustains and transforms the universe. To the Yoruba, art began when Olódùmarè commissioned the artist deity Obatala to mold the first human image from clay. Today, it is customary for the Yoruba to wish pregnant women good luck with the greeting: May Obatala fashion for us a good work of art.

The concept of ase influences how many of the Yoruba arts are composed. In the visual arts, a design may be segmented or seriate- a „discontinuous aggregate in which the units of the whole are discrete and share equal value with the other units.“ Such elements can be seen in Ifa trays and bowls, veranda posts, carved doors, and ancestral masks.

The Yoruba people regard the human head (ori) as the most important part of a person. Likewise, the head is the most prominent part of Yoruba sculpture. An analysis of Yoruba ontology reveals that the Yoruba regard the head as the locus of the ase of Olodumare. Therefore, the head constitutes a person’s life-source and controlling personality and destiny. Babatunde Lawal identifies three different modes of representing the head in Yoruba sculpture: „the naturalistic, which refers to the external, or physical head (ori ode); the stylized, which hints at the inner, or spiritual, head (ori inu); and the abstract, which symbolizes the primeval material (oke ipori) of which the inner head was made.“

The issue of anonymity and authorship has long troubled the field of African art history, particularly as it relates to the political disparities between Africa and the West. Such information was, at least initially, rarely sought in the field and deemed unnecessary and even undesirable by many collectors. Susan Vogel has identified a further paradox. „[I]n their own societies,“ Vogel writes, „African artists are known and even famous, but their names are rarely preserved in connection with specific works… More often than not, the African sculptor becomes virtually irrelevant to the life of the art object once his work is complete… Cultures preserve the information they value.“

The problem of anonymity in Yoruba art in particular is troubling in the context of Yoruba culture where „it is absolutely imperative for individuals to acknowledge each other’s identity and presence from moment to moment, [and where] there is a special greeting for every occasion and each time of day.“

Several Yoruba artists‘ names are known, including but not limited to:

Yoruban blacksmiths create sculpture from iron, through hand-beating, welding, and casting. Ogun is honored as the god of iron.

Metalworkers also create brass sculptures by lost-wax casting. Brass is seen as being incorruptible by the Ogboni Society.

Ife head, terracotta, probably 12–14th centuries

Bronze Head from Ife currently in the British Museum.

Sculpture of a ‚Queen Mother‘ from Benin.

16th century ivory mask from Benin

One of the Benin Bronzes, 16th-18th century, Nigeria.

Female figure from Oke-Onigbin, Shango shrine.

The tendency in many African cosmologies to identify the body as a vehicle incarnating the soul on earth has encouraged the metaphoric use of the masquerade for a similar purpose. Egúngún, Gelede,and Epa are among the many types of Masquerade practiced by the Yoruba.

For the full article on Yoruba Crowns see Oba’s crown

The bead-embroidered crown (or ade, in local language) with beaded veil, foremost attribute of the Oba, symbolizes the aspirations of a civilization at the highest level of authority. In his seminal article on the topic, Robert F. Thompson writes, „The crown incarnates the intuition of royal ancestral force, the revelation of great moral insight in the person of the king, and the glitter of aesthetic experience.“

There is also a vibrant form of customary theatre known as Alarinjo that has its roots in the medieval period and that has given much to the contemporary Nigerian film industry.

Esiẹ Museum is a museum in Esiẹ, Irepodun, Kwara state. The museum was the first to be established in Nigeria when it opened in 1945. The museum once housed over one thousand tombstone figures or images representing human beings. It is reputed to have the largest collection of soapstone images in the world. In modern times the Esie museum has been the center of religious activities and hosts a festival in the month of April every year.

Сергиево-Посадское викариатство

Се́ргиево-Поса́дское викариа́тство — викариатство Московской городской епархии Русской православной церкви.

Первоначально Сергиевское викариатство было учреждено в начале 1920-х годов. Получило название по городу Сергиев (ныне Сергиев Посад, Московская область).

24 февраля 1946 года по указу патриарха Московского Алексия I архимандрит Никон (де Греве) был хиротонисан во епископа Сергиевского и окормлял приходы в Бельгии. Однако вскоре после смерти митрополита Евлогия (Георгиевского) епископ Никон вышел из подчинения Московской Патриархии и на кафедру был назначен епископ Иоанн (Леончуков), который не замедлил последовать за Никоном.

Кафедра была восстановлена с хиротонией во епископа Сергиевского Антония (Блума) 30 ноября 1957 года в качестве викария Западноевропейского Экзархата. Полем его проповеди стала Великобритания, где его трудами создалась новая Сурожская епархия, на которую он и был перемещён 10 октября 1962 года.

22 февраля 1993 года Сергиевское викариатство было восстановлено, теперь как викариатство Сурожской епархии.

В 2002 году, Священный Синод, не упраздняя Сергиевского викариатства, учредил Сергиево-Посадское викариатство Московской епархии с хиротонией 31 марта 2002 года наместника Троице-Сергиевой Лавры Феогноста (Гузикова) во епископа Сергиево-Посадского, с оставлением его на прежнем месте служения. Данный факт вызвал недовольство епископа Сергиевского Василия (Осборна).

Preston Tower

Preston Tower is a ruined L-plan keep in the ancient village of Prestonpans. It is situated within a few metres from two other historic houses, Hamilton House and Northfield House.

The original structure, some of which may date from the 14th century, has four storeys. A further two storeys were added above the parapet in 1626, with Renaissance windows bearing the initials SIDKH (Sir John and Dame Katherine Hamilton).

The entrance to the Tower had a lean-to hoarding from which items could be dropped, for instance boulders, hot sand, or boiling oil.

Preston passed by marriage to the „haughty Hamiltons“ (also known as „Hameldone“) at the close of the 14th century. It was burnt by the Earl of Hertford in 1544 during the Rough Wooing, and by Oliver Cromwell in 1650. After being restored it burnt again, accidentally, in 1663 and was abandoned for the nearby Preston House, East Lothian. One of the Hamilton family was the noted covenanter Robert Hamilton, a commander in the battles of Drumclog and Bothwell Brig. After this, the family were forfeited in 1684, but recovered the property in the 19th century.

Preston Tower was purchased by the National Trust for Scotland in 1969. It is currently under the guardianship of East Lothian Council.

The site also has a laburnum arch, and a herb garden, and a lectern-style doocot which dates from the mid-17th century, after Cromwell had sacked the Tower.

Lectern doocot at Preston Tower


Manuela Mahnke

Manuela Mahnke (* 17. Februar 1965 in Bremerhaven) ist eine bremische Politikerin (SPD), war Abgeordnete der Bremischen Bürgerschaft und seit 2015 Bürgermeisterin von Nottuln.

Mahnke besuchte das Gymnasium bis zur 12. Klasse und schloss es mit der Fachhochschulreife ab. Es folgte eine Lehre zur Hotelfachfrau und anschließend der Besuch der Fachhochschule für Verwaltung und Rechtspflege in Hildesheim welche sie als Diplom Verwaltungsbetriebswirtin (FH) abschloss.

Vom 1. Januar 1991 bis 31. Dezember 1998 war sie Soldatin im Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr. Sie hat den Rang eines Kapitänleutnants d.R. Vom 1. Juli 2000 bis 30. Juni 2003 war sie als Verwaltungsleiterin bei der DRK-Behindertenhilfe in Debstedt tätig und seit dem 1. Juli 2003 ist sie Dezernentin für studentische Angelegenheiten an der Hochschule Bremerhaven. Das Dienstverhältnis ruht aufgrund des Bremer Abgeordnetengesetzes für die Dauer der Mitgliedschaft in der Bürgerschaft. Sie ist seit 2015 Bürgermeisterin von Nottuln.

Sie ist geschieden, hat ein Kind und wohnt in Bremerhaven – Lehe, Ortsteil Buschkämpen.

Mahnke ist seit 2002 Mitglied der SPD und war für ihre Partei Vorsitzende des Ortsvereins Lehe.

Seit der Wahl 2007 war sie bis 2015 Mitglied der Bremischen Bürgerschaft (Landtag). Sie war Fraktionssprecherin für Bundes- und Europaangelegenheiten, internationale Kontakte und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Sie war u.a. im Ausschuss für Bundes- und Europaangelegenheiten, internationale Kontakte und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (stell. Vorsitzende), Vorstand der Bremischen Bürgerschaft, Ausschuss für die Gleichstellung der Frau (Mitglied), und im Wahlprüfungsgericht tätig.

Am 13. September 2015 gewann sie mit 52,7 % die Bürgermeisterwahl und wird mit Wirkung zum 21. Oktober 2015 Bürgermeisterin der Gemeinde Nottuln. Sie ist damit die erste Frau in diesem Amt. Zum 21. Oktober 2015 verzichtete sie auf das Bürgerschaftsmandat.

Sie ist seit 2012 Mitglied des Kongresses der Gemeinden und Regionen des Europarates.

Causeway Coast and Glens

Causeway Coast and Glens (irisch Ceantar Chósta an Chlocháin agus na nGleannta) ist ein District in Nordirland. Er wurde am 1. April 2015 aus den Boroughs Ballymoney, Coleraine und Limavady sowie dem District Moyle gebildet. Verwaltet wird er durch das Causeway Coast and Glens District Council.

Der neue District umfasst einen Großteil des Nordens Nordirlands, ein Gebiet von 1796 km². Er erstreckt sich über den nördlichen Teil des County Antrim und den nordöstlichen Teil des County Londonderry. Dort leben etwa 132.000 Menschen, von denen 95.979 wahlberechtigt sind. Der Name wurde am 17. September 2008 bekanntgegeben, zunächst als Causeway Coast. Im Februar 2009 wurde er dann in Causeway Coast and Glens geändert.

Northern Ireland Railways betreibt eine Eisenbahnverbindung auf der Strecke Belfast–Londonderry zwischen dem Bahnhof Londonderry im Westen und dem Hauptbahnhof Belfast, bzw. dem Bahnhof Great Victoria Street im Osten.

Auf der Strecke Coleraine–Portrush fahren Züge vom Eisenbahnknotenpunkt im Bahnhof Coleraine im Süden zum Bahnhof Portrush im Norden.

Die Giant’s Causeway and Bushmills Railway ist eine Museumsbahn und wichtige Touristenattraktion.

Das Gebiet erstreckt sich vom Roe beim Dorf Bellarena entlang der Ufer des Lough Foyle über Magilligan Point mit Banone Strand am Atlantik und den Mussenden-Tempel auf den Klippen von Castlerock. Mit Castlerock, dem ersten Seebad, ist das Ästuar des Bann erreicht. Vom Bann aus zieht sich die Küstenlinie zu den Seebädern Portstewart und Portrush. Weiter an der Küste entlang befinden sich Dunluce Castle, das Dorf Portballintrae und die Stadt Bushmills. In Bushmills befindet sich die älteste lizenzierte Destillerie der Welt, wo seit 1608 der berühmte irische Whiskey „Bushmills“ hergestellt wird. Über den Bush führt die Giant’s Causeway and Bushmills Railway und der Giant’s Causeway liegt ganz in der Nähe. Dann folgen Ballintoy und Ballycastle.

Die Gegend ist bei Touristen sehr beliebt. Dort finden sich die drei bekanntesten Sehenswürdigkeiten Nordirlands: der Giant’s Causeway (ein Weltnaturerbe), die Glens of Antrim und die Insel Rathlin 11 km vor der Küste von Ballycastle. An der Küste gibt es weiterhin die Seilbrücke von Carrick-a-Rede und das kleine Dunseverick Castle sowie das entlegene Seebad Ballycastle mit einer Fähre nach Rathlin über die Straits of Moyle. Von Ballycastle aus schwenkt die Küstenlinie nach Süden, um Fair Head herum, entlang des Nordkanals. Dort liegen die Siedlungen Cushendun, Cushendall und schließlich Waterfoot.

Das Causeway Coast and Glens District Council ersetzte das Ballymoney Borough Council, das Coleraine Borough Council, das Limavady Borough Council und das Moyle District Council. Die ersten Wahlen für das District Council sollten eigentlich im Mai 2009 stattfinden, aber am 25. April 2008 verkündete Shaun Woodward, Minister für Nordirland, dass die Wahlen auf 2011 verschoben seien. Die ersten Wahlen fanden dann tatsächlich am 22. Mai 2014 statt.

Antrim and Newtownabbey | Ards and North Down | Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon | Belfast | Causeway Coast and Glens | Derry and Strabane | Fermanagh and Omagh | Lisburn and Castlereagh | Mid and East Antrim | Mid Ulster | Newry, Mourne and Down


CNU (singer)

on Twitter

Shin Dong-woo (Hangul: 신동우; hanja: 申東佑; born June 16, 1991), better known by his stage name CNU (pronunciation: Shin-oo), is a South Korean singer and member of boy band B1A4, who made their debut in April 2011 under WM Entertainment. In 2012, he appeared in the KBS sitcom Sent From Heaven.

Shin Dong-woo was born on June 16, 1991, in Cheongju, North Chungcheong, South Korea. He studied at Bongmyung High School. In his adolescence he formed a rock band with his friend Jooyoung. He later studied at Hanyang University in the Department of Theater and Film.

On April 11, 2011, WM Entertainment revealed CNU as the final member in the lineup of their new boy group B1A4. The group released their debut single „OK“ and their mini album Let’s Fly on April 20, making their first broadcast performance on MBC’s Show! Music Core on April 23. Since then, CNU has participated in B1A4’s four studio albums and six EPs.



(Japanese version)

Shoko Fujibayashi

Tadami, Fukushima

Tadami (只見町 Tadami-machi?) is a town located in Minamiaizu District, Fukushima Prefecture, in northern Honshu, Japan. As of September 2014, the town has an estimated population of 4,559 and a population density of 6.1 persons per km2. The total area was 747.54  km2. Tadami is famous locally for its own Snow Festival, where huge sculptures and replicas of monuments are cut out of Tadami’s abundant snow.

Tadami is located the in mountainous western portion of the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, bordered Niigata Prefecture to the west. The climate is like many other parts of northern Japan, with cold winters and heavy snowfalls.

The area of present-day Tadami was part of ancient Mutsu Province and formed part of the holdings of Aizu Domain during the Edo period. After the Meiji Restoration, it was organized as part of Minamiaizu District.

Inahoku village was founded on April 1, 1889 with the establishment of the municipalities system. It changed its name on November 3, 1953 to Tadami. The village expanded on July 20, 1955 through a merger with neighboring Meiwa Village. Tadami was raised to town status in August 1, 1959 after merging with the village of Asahi.[citation needed]

Hydroelectric power generation from numerous dams on the Tadami River is the primary source of revenue for the town.

Embedded OpenType

Embedded OpenType (EOT) fonts are a compact form of OpenType fonts designed by Microsoft for use as embedded fonts on web pages. These files use the extension .eot. They are supported only by Microsoft Internet Explorer, as opposed to competing WOFF files.

These font files can be created from existing TrueType font files using Microsoft’s Web Embedding Fonts Tool (WEFT), and other proprietary and open source software (see “External links” below).

The font files are made small in size by use of subsetting (only including the needed characters), and by data compression (LZ compression, part of Agfa’s ). Like OTF fonts, EOT supports both Postscript and TrueType outlines for the glyphs.

Simply including fonts in webpages might lead to unrestricted copying of copyrighted font files. Embedded OpenType includes features to discourage copying. Subsetting reduces the value of copying, as subsetted fonts will typically omit more than half of the characters. Other copy protection measures used are encryption and a list of „trusted roots“ at the source end, and a proprietary decrypting library at the receiving end.

If the embedded font is not available to the web page for any reason (missing font file, wrong keys in the file, non-support by the web browser), then the second-choice font specification is used, ensuring that the page should be readable even without the intended font.

Embedded OpenType is a proprietary standard supported exclusively by Internet Explorer but was , which was rejected and resubmitted as a . The on the submission states that the „W3C plans to submit a proposal to the W3C members for a working group whose goal is to try and develop EOT into a W3C Recommendation.“ However, the W3C ultimately chose a different web font format (WOFF) as a W3C Recommendation.

The Web Embedding Fonts Tool, or WEFT, is Microsoft’s utility for generating embeddable web fonts.

WEFT is used by webmasters to create ‚font objects‘ that are linked to their web pages so that users using Microsoft’s Internet Explorer web browser will see the pages displayed in the font style contained within the font object.

WEFT scans the HTML document file(s), the TrueType font file(s), and some additional parameters. It adjusts the HTML files and creates Embedded OpenType files for inclusion on the web site. These files usually use the extension „.eot„.

WEFT can embed most fonts, but it will not embed fonts that have been designated as ’no embedding‘ fonts by their designers. WEFT may reject other fonts because problems have been identified.

Embedded fonts are widely used to generate non-English-language websites.

As of January 2015, the most recent version of the tool (WEFT 5.3.2) was released on 25 February 2003.

An open source alternative is „ttf2eot“ .

Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 and 2010 also generate .eot files with the „.fntdata“ extension when fonts are selected to be embedded in a presentation by the PowerPoint client application. These .eot files can be extracted from the „.pptx“ file and used directly on web pages.

Critical security update for Windows Vista KB969947 resolves several security issues that „could allow remote code execution if a user viewed content rendered in a specially crafted Embedded OpenType (EOT) font“. Such fonts could be embedded in Web sites, including those that host user-provided content.

Boston Marathon 1929

De Boston Marathon 1929 werd gelopen op vrijdag 19 april 1929. Het was de 33e editie van de Boston Marathon. Aan deze wedstrijd mochten geen vrouwen deelnemen. De Canadees Johnny Miles kwam als eerste over de streep in 2:33.08.

Het parcours is te kort gebleken. Het had namelijk niet de lengte van 42,195 km, maar 41,1 km .

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